G. Gardner Definitions
Verbal-linguistic intelligence: It is the ability to generate speech, including the mechanisms responsible for the phonetic (speech sounds), syntactic (grammar), semantic (meaning) and pragmatic component of speech (the use of speech in different situations). It is characterized by word-sensitivity to the meaning of words, to the order of words that is by the ability to follow gramma rules or to violate them if necessary. Sensitivity to sounds, rhythm, declination and poetic size is at a slightly more subtle level.
Musical-rhythmic intelligence: it includes the ability to recognize and use voice and rhythm, sensitivity to sound and tone, a very delicate ear for music. This intelligence has a very strong natural power, it seems to be inherent to human nature: no wonder many of us like to hum or whistle our favorite tunes while doing something. It is obvious that composers, singers, performers, music teachers have the most vividely expressed type of this intelligence. The musical mind is mostly based on the mechanisms of tonal memory. This memory will not be able to function creatively until it stores a rich variety of tonal shades. The main components of music are height (or melody), rhythm, timbre: the peculiar sounds are produced at a certain frequency and are grouped according to the developed system.
Visual-spatial intelligence: it concerns such areas of human ability as drawing, sculpture, design, navigation, architecture, and even, strangely enough, the game of chess. This type of intelligence suggests highly developed abilities to imaginative thinking and, as a rule, is inherent to professionals in the field of architectural and artistic creativity, cartography, design and even advertising. The main abilities of spatial intelligence are the ability to pricisely perceive the visible world, to perform transformations and modifications according to the first impression, as well as the ability to recreate aspects of visual experience even in the absence of a corresponding physical object. The simplest operation on which other aspects of spatial intelligence are based is the ability to perceive a figure or object. Spatial abilities can be divided into three components: the ability to identify the object seen from a different angle; the ability to imagine the movement or internal changes in the configuration of figures; the ability to operate with such spatial relationships in which one of the key conditions is the orientation of the body of the observer.
Bodyly-kinesthetic intelligence reflects the ability of a person to express emotions creatively, to show strength and beauty using gracefull movements of individual muscle groups and the whole body. Besides, in relation to the learning process this type of intelligence means the use of materialized actions as the main stage of development of mental abilities of students. Dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, acrobats, figure skaters, representatives of circus art are strongly marked with this type of intelligence. It is characterized by the ability to control the body proficiently and use this ability for expressive and clearly defined purposes.
Interpersonal intelligence: it involves highly developed communication skills, ability to work in a team, ability to set a close contact and to communicate with the audience, psychological ability to feel and understand the other person. This type of intelligence is inherent to psychotherapists, religious leaders, politicians, managers.
Intrapersonal intelligence: first of all it includes knowledge of internal mechanisms of human mental activity at the level of feelings, emotions, experiences, self-analysis, intuition, etc. It also suggests rather developed abilities to methodological thinking, deep analysis of reality, reflection, system perception of objects and phenomena. This type of intelligence can be found in thinkers, philosophers, spiritual teachers.